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Jessica rated it liked it Apr 02, Ntsoko Phuti rated it it was ok Dec 05, Jill added it Jan 24, David marked it as to-read Jun 29, Jeff Schauer marked it as to-read Oct 09, Carla marked it as to-read Jul 28, Kieran O'Connor marked it as to-read Dec 24, Naomi marked it as to-read Jun 25, Patrick Salkeld added it Sep 10, Ntokozo Wendy marked it as to-read Jul 30, In practice, although the intra-empire upward labor mobility that the Portuguese regime was touting featured a very high or, arguably, no ceiling, its metaphorical walls were rather narrow and, in practice, strictly delimited.
The majority of the Angolan players who emigrated to Portugal never felt a sense of satisfaction. To be sure, not all African players felt as exploited as Dinis, or even at all. Regardless, players with remuneration grievances could only safely invoke race as an explanation after the Portuguese dictatorship fell in In the meantime, club officials were well aware that the terms on offer in the metropole were far superior to those available from African clubs, leaving these players little room to maneuver.
If African players largely adapted culturally and integrated socially with only minor difficulties, a series of familiar labor strategies helped them capitalize, to the fullest extent possible, on their new opportunities. For example, prior to leaving Africa, many soccer prospects sought advice from players who had already migrated to Portugal, typically inquiring about what wages they should seek and which clubs offered the best working and living conditions.
gerritandchristy.com/cell-phone-surveillance-tool-vivo-y17.php Armed with this information, many followed in the footsteps of athletes who had preceded them, analogous to Africans, e. Mozambicans and Angolans, informing themselves and then targeting and traveling to specific mines in South Africa to seek employment. Once established in the metropole, players also sought advice from more experienced teammates when it came time to re-negotiate their contracts. Many players also engaged in secondary migration, subsequently affiliating with a series of different Portuguese clubs, just as migrant mineworkers might switch employers in an effort to improve their lives.
Thus, even as these players navigated this drastically different terrain, they fell back on well-established tactics. Established players offered these prospective recruits advice on which clubs offered the best conditions, what salaries to seek and insights into metropolitan life. At times, this type of guidance even crossed racial lines.
According to a account,. He then spoke to his parents.
They thought for some minutes, and there was no doubt that separation from their son would be a huge blow, but it was certain that he would begin a better life, which naturally excited them Armando, However, this was not always the case. A player will go to the club that pays more and offers a better contract; it has nothing to do with tradition. For example… Coluna played for Desportivo Mozambique and came to Benfica… It all depended on the terms and conditions offered by the clubs in Portugal Armstrong, , p.
He is not my father or family. In practice, however, the secondary migration paths that these athletes traversed did not always mean simply swapping one team for another.
Our Locations. App Download Follow Us. The oxen are driven off while the race is eagerly discussed. In , I had to find a job new team because at that time the soccer salaries were small. I know MML is an educational publisher, but surely they could make the hop to a trade book for what everyone is touting as the opportunity in a lifetime? Jean-Luc Nancy and the Networks of the Political.
Instead, many parlayed their ability to travel to Portugal to continue their studies in the hopes of receiving an education that would, in turn, serve them well long after their athleticism faded. According to Wilson,. With just soccer, you could live well for years and then fall off the map… It was a huge risk.
In a interview, he explained his motivations. Benfica is a great club.
My ambition has always been to become an engineer. According to Torres:. This strategy had a long history in the colonies, as local soccer clubs often attracted talented players by offering them salaried jobs, or otherwise helping to arrange employment. Elsewhere, migrant players from Anglophone and Francophone Africa often traveled to England and France, respectively, only after being offered remunerated employment to complement their soccer endeavors.
In Portugal, this route took players to Grupo Desportivo da C. In , I had to find a job new team because at that time the soccer salaries were small. So I ended up… at C. I played until … and I was the captain… Players did like coming to C.
The job and opportunity to play soccer was a good combination Manuel de Oliveira, individual statement, October 26, After joining Sporting in , he took classes in his spare time, still aspiring to become an engineer following the end of his playing days. Pinto excelled at his new club, propelling them to a third place finish in the league in , and concomitantly earning a place on the Portuguese national team. While playing for C. Many players acknowledged this reality, and consequently sought post-soccer security in classrooms or corporate offices.
Consequently, these athletes were viewed neither as subversives by the Portuguese population nor as political stooges or collaborators by their African brothers who were fighting — and dying — for independence. African players were even able to maintain an air of impartiality despite the fact that many of them donned both Portuguese national team jerseys and military uniforms. There were exceptions, with some players returning to Africa to fight for independence, as was the case in the better-known Francophone context. However, these athletes- cum -freedom fighters were few in number.
Instead, even if many players harbored sympathies for the African independence movements, they remained outwardly detached. These comments disarmed potentially suspicious Portuguese and also endeared the players to the supporters of their new clubs. Open admiration for their new country continued as they settled in, often heavily flavored with gratitude, respect, even obsequiousness. Here, I have lived the most beautiful moments of my existence; here I encountered a future, glory, and happiness Torres, This rhetoric was primarily intended for international consumption, as the regime utilized these players to tailor its image abroad.
We Neto and I used to meet in Lisbon, where Neto was studying … we came many times… to send correspondence to Angola and Mozambique. I began to perceive things that I previously had not, coming to see Mozambique with a new set of eyes Wilson, , p.
chupopernoro.gq: Laduma!: Soccer, Politics and Society in South Africa, from its Origins to (Updated Edition) (): Peter Alegi: Books. Laduma! Soccer, Politics and Society in South Africa, from Its Origins to Scottsville, South Africa: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2nd edition. xv +.
This professional approach, however, should not be understood as complicity with the regime. Rather, these players remained committed to their primary life objectives, which revolved around personal and familial security and well-being, rather than emerging notions of nationhood on the now-distant continent. By listening to their motivations and objectives, by considering their social origins and by examining their actions it is clear that they not only reflected, but also actively shaped colonial relationships and policies.
Their relationship with the regime was functional for both entities, rather than purely exploitative for either, while even its political dimension remained largely undeveloped. By considering these players as laborers, strategically offering their services to employers that provided the most favorable working conditions, both in the colonies and, subsequently, upon arriving in the metropole, these athletes exhibited both highly pragmatic and calculated behavior.
Aguiar, M. Alegi, P. Armstrong, G. In Armstrong, G. Basingstroke: Palgrave Macmillan. Bender, G. Angola under the Portuguese: The myth and the reality. Choy, C.