Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Jason rated it really liked it May 28, Ibnu Budiman rated it really liked it Jan 03, Mei Calms rated it really liked it Jul 09, Drunkphobia rated it really liked it Dec 18, Ashiq Rasool rated it it was amazing Mar 08, Azadeh Sobout rated it it was amazing Jul 13, Anahit Cf added it Nov 06, Jahanl1 marked it as to-read Dec 28, Novita marked it as to-read Nov 17, Michal Dolata marked it as to-read Nov 05, Dux Supo quisocala added it Sep 09, Sapphire Ng marked it as to-read Oct 30, Nando marked it as to-read Sep 16, Denise Porter marked it as to-read Aug 03, The transition to this modern state was possible in Europe around thanks to the confluence of factors like the technological developments in warfare, which generated strong incentives to tax and consolidate central structures of governance to respond to external threats.
This was complemented by the increasing on the production of food as a result of productivity improvements , which allowed to sustain a larger population and so increased the complexity and centralization of states. Finally, cultural changes challenged the authority of monarchies and paved the way to the emergence of modern states.
The conditions that enabled the emergence of modern states in Europe were different for other countries that started this process later. As a result, many of these states lack effective capabilities to tax and extract revenue from their citizens, which derives in problems like corruption, tax evasion and low economic growth. Unlike the European case, late state formation occurred in a context of limited international conflict that diminished the incentives to tax and increase military spending.
Also, many of these states emerged from colonization in a state of poverty and with institutions designed to extract natural resources, which have made more difficult to form states. European colonization also defined many arbitrary borders that mixed different cultural groups under the same national identities, which has made difficult to build states with legitimacy among all the population, since some states have to compete for it with other forms of political identity. As a complement of this argument, Migdal gives a historical account on how sudden social changes in the Third World during the Industrial Revolution contributed to the formation of weak states.
The expansion of international trade that started around , brought profound changes in Africa, Asia and Latin America that were introduced with the objective of assure the availability of raw materials for the European market. These changes consisted in: i reforms to landownership laws with the objective of integrate more lands to the international economy, ii increase in the taxation of peasants and little landowners, as well as collecting of these taxes in cash instead of in kind as was usual up to that moment and iii the introduction of new and less costly modes of transportation, mainly railroads.
As a result, the traditional forms of social control became obsolete, deteriorating the existing institutions and opening the way to the creation of new ones, that not necessarily lead these countries to build strong states.
Developed out of the authors own substantial teaching experience, this introduction to political geography approaches its subject matter from the standpoint of. Political Geography: Territory, State and Society [Kevin R. Cox] on chupopernoro.gq *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Developed out of the author's own.
As a result, these decentralization of social control impedes to consolidate strong states. Quotations related to State at Wikiquote. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Organised community living under a system of government; either a sovereign state, constituent state, or federated state.
For other uses, see State disambiguation.
This article is about the general definition of state. It is not to be confused with sovereign state or country.
See also: Government. See also: Nation-state. See also: Corporatism and Elite theory. Main article: Anarchism. Main article: Marx's theory of the state. See also: Polyarchy. Main article: New institutionalism. Main article: Legitimacy political. See also: Social contract and State of nature. Main article: Divine right of kings. Main article: Rational-legal authority.
Main article: Stateless societies. Further information: Neolithic and Copper Age state societies.
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